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With an estimated population of 1, as of July 1,[9] San Diego is the eighth-largest city in the United States and second-largest in California. It is part of the San Diego—Tijuana conurbationthe second-largest transborder agglomeration between the US and a bordering country after Detroit—Windsorwith a population of 4, people.

San Diego has been called "the birthplace of California". InSan Diego became part of the newly arbeiten Online-Casino Spin Casino Mexico, which reformed as the First Mexican Republic two years later. The city is the seat of San Diego County and is the economic center of the region as Casino Land für 400 Rubel as the San Diego—Tijuana metropolitan area.

San Diego's main economic engines are military and defense-related activities, tourism, international trade, and manufacturing. The original inhabitants of the Casino Land für 400 Rubel are now known as the San Dieguito and La Jolla people. It was the first settlement by Europeans in what is now the state of California. InMexico began attempting to extend Casino Land für 400 Rubel authority over the coastal territory of Alta California.

The fort on Presidio Hill was gradually abandoned, while Casino Land für 400 Rubel town of San Diego grew up on the level land below Presidio Hill. The Mission was secularized by the Mexican government inand most of the Mission lands were sold to wealthy Californio settlers. See, List of pre-statehood mayors of San Diego. However, San Diego had been losing population throughout the s and in the town lost its pueblo status because its size dropped to an estimated to residents.

Inthe United States went to war against Mexico and sent a naval and land expedition to conquer Alta California. At first they had an easy time of it capturing the major ports including San Diego, but the Californios in southern Alta California struck Casino Land für 400 Rubel. Following the successful revolt in Los Casino Land für 400 Rubelthe American garrison at San Diego was driven out without firing a shot in early October Mexican partisans held San Diego for three weeks until October 24,when the Americans recaptured it.

For the next several months the Americans were blockaded inside the pueblo. Skirmishes occurred daily and snipers shot into the town every night. The Californios drove cattle away from the pueblo hoping to starve the Americans and their Californio supporters out. Kearney were at Warner's Ranch. Stockton sent a mounted force of fifty under Captain Archibald Gillespie to march north to meet him. In the ensuing Battle of San Pasqualfought in the San Pasqual Valley which is now part of the city of San Diego, the Americans Casino Land für 400 Rubel their worst losses in the campaign.

Subsequently, a column led by Lieutenant Gray arrived from San Diego, rescuing Kearny's battered and blockaded command. The Mexican negotiators of that treaty tried to retain San Diego Emulatoren Spielautomaten part of Mexico, but the Americans insisted that San Diego was "for every commercial purpose of nearly equal importance to us with that of San Francisco," and the Mexican—American border was eventually established to be one league south of the southernmost point of San Diego Bayso as to include the entire bay within the United States.

The state of California was admitted to the United States in That same year San Diego was designated the seat of the newly established San Diego County and was incorporated as a city. Beanthe last alcalde of San Diego, was elected the first mayor. Two years later the city was bankrupt; [27] the California legislature revoked the city's charter and placed it under control of a board of trustees, where it remained until Casino Land für 400 Rubel city charter was re-established in and today's city charter was adopted in The location was not ideal, being several miles away from navigable water at its port at La Playa.

InWilliam Heath Davis promoted a new development by the Bay shore called "New San Diego", several miles south of the original settlement; however, for several decades the new development consisted only a pier, a few houses and an Army depot for the support of Fort Yuma.

Afterthe fort became supplied by sea and by steamboats on the Colorado Riverthe depot fell into disuse. Horton promoted the area heavily, and people and businesses began to relocate to New Town because its location on San Diego Bay was convenient to shipping. New Town soon eclipsed the original settlement, known to this day as Old Townand became the economic and governmental heart of the city.

In the early part of the 20th century, San Diego hosted two World's Fairs: The buildings were intended to be temporary structures, but most remained in continuous use until they progressively fell into disrepair. The southern portion of the Point Loma peninsula was set aside for military purposes as early as Over the next several decades the Army set up a series of coastal artillery batteries and named the area Fort Rosecrans.

Navy presence began in with the establishment of the Navy Coaling Station in Point Loma, and expanded greatly during the s. The city was also an early center for aviation: Lindbergh 's plane The Spirit of St. Louis was built in San Diego in by Ryan Airlines. During World War IISan Diego became a major hub of military and defense activity, due to the presence of so many military installations and defense manufacturers.

The city's population grew rapidly during and after World War II, more than doubling betweenandThe plan was called " Operation Cherry Just click for source at Night " and called for kamikaze planes filled with fleas infected with plague Yersinia pestis to crash into civilian population centers in the city, hoping to spread plague in the city and effectively kill tens of thousands of civilians.

The plan was scheduled to launch on September 22,but was not carried out because Japan surrendered five weeks earlier. After World War II, the military continued to play a major role in the local economy, but post- Cold War cutbacks took a heavy toll on the local defense and aerospace industries. The resulting downturn Casino Land für 400 Rubel San Diego leaders to seek to diversify the Online-Slots für echtes Eldorado economy by focusing on research and science, as well as tourism.

From the mit Online-Casino Rubel of the 20th century through the s, the American tuna fishing fleet and tuna canning industry were based in San Diego, "the tuna capital of the world". A large fishing fleet supported the canneries, mostly staffed by immigrant fishermen from Japanand later from the Portuguese Azores and Italy whose influence is still felt in neighborhoods like Little Italy and Point Loma.

Downtown San Diego was in decline in the s and s, but experienced some urban renewal since the early s, including the opening of Horton Plazathe revival of the Gaslamp Quarterand the construction Casino Land für 400 Rubel the Casino Land für 400 Rubel Diego Convention Center ; Petco Park opened in The city lies on approximately deep canyons and hills separating its mesascreating small pockets of natural space scattered throughout the city and giving it a hilly geography.

The San Diego River runs through the middle of San Diego from east to west, creating a river valley which serves to divide the city into northern and southern segments. The river used to flow into San Diego Bay and its fresh water was the focus of the earliest Spanish explorers. Miguel Costanso, a cartographer, wrote in"When asked by signs where the watering-place was, the Indians pointed to a grove which could be seen at a considerable distance to the northeast, giving to understand that a river or creek flowed through it, and that they would lead our men to it if they would follow.

The Cuyamaca Mountains and Laguna Mountains rise to the east of the city, and beyond the mountains are desert areas. Numerous farms are found in the valleys northeast and southeast of the city. Altogether the city contains more than identified neighborhoods. Balboa Park encompasses several Casino Land für 400 Rubel and canyons to the northeast, surrounded by older, dense urban communities including Hillcrest and North Park.

To the north lies Mission Valley and Interstate 8. The far northeast portion of the city encompasses Lake Hodges and the San Pasqual Valleywhich holds an agricultural preserve. Carmel Valley and Del Mar Heights occupy the northwest corner of the city. Point Loma occupies the peninsula across San Diego Bay from downtown.

A narrow strip land at the bottom of San Diego Bay connects these southern neighborhoods with the rest of the city. For the most part, San Diego neighborhood boundaries tend to be understood by its residents based on geographical boundaries like canyons and street patterns.

San Diego was originally centered on the Old Town district, but by the late s the focus had shifted to the Bayfront, in the belief that this new location would increase trade.

San Diego is one of the top-ten best climates in the Farmers' Almanac [63] and is one of the two best summer climates in America as scored by The Weather Channel. The climate in San Diego, like most of Southern California, often varies significantly over short geographical distances resulting in microclimates.

In San Diego, this Casino Land für 400 Rubel mostly because of the city's topography the Bay, and the numerous hills, mountains, and canyons. A sign of global warmingthe average surface temperature of the water at Scripps Pier in the California Current has increased by almost 3 degrees sinceaccording to scientists at Scripps Click at this page of Oceanography.

Annual rainfall along the coast averages The months of May through September tend to be almost completely dry. Although there are few wet days per month during the rainy period, rainfall can be heavy Casino Land für 400 Rubel it does fall.

Variability from year to year can be dramatic: The wettest month on record is December with 9. Snow in the city is so rare that it has been observed only five times in the century-and-a-half that records have been kept. In andsnow stayed on the ground for a few hours in higher locations like Point Loma and La Jolla.

The other three occasions, in, andinvolved flurries but no accumulation. Like most of Southern Californiathe majority of San Diego's current area was originally occupied by Casino Land für 400 Rubela plant community made up mostly of drought-resistant shrubs.

The endangered Torrey pine has the bulk of its population in San Diego in a stretch of protected chaparral along the coast. Casino Land für 400 Rubel steep and varied topography and proximity to the ocean create a number of different habitats within the city limits, including tidal marsh and canyons.

The chaparral and coastal sage scrub habitats in low elevations along the coast are prone to wildfireand the rates of fire have increased in the 20th century, due primarily to Casino Land für 400 Rubel starting near the borders of urban and wild areas. Torrey Pines State Reserve and a coastal strip continuing to the north constitute the only location where the rare species of Torrey Pine, P.

Due to the steep topography that prevents or discourages building, along with some efforts for preservation, there are also a large number of canyons within the city limits that serve as nature preserves, including Casino De Online CanyonTecolote Canyon Natural Park, [82] and Marian Bear Memorial Park in the San Clemente Canyon[83] as well as a number of small parks and preserves.

San Diego County has one of the highest counts of animal and plant species that appear on the Casino Land für 400 Rubel list of counties in the United States. San Diego this web page its backcountry suffer from periodic wildfires. In OctoberSan Diego was the site of the Cedar Firecalled the largest wildfire in California over the past century.

The city had a population of 1, according to the census, distributed over a land area of They, along with the Riverside—San Bernardinoform those metropolitan areas in California larger than the San Diego metropolitan areawith a total population of 3, at the census. The population density was 3, The racial makeup of San Diego was The ethnic makeup of the city was As of December [update]San Diego has the third-largest homeless population in the United States; [] the city's homeless population has the largest percentage of homeless veterans in the nation.

Median age of Hispanics was In there werehouseholds out of which Households made up of individuals account for The average household size was 2. Census Bureau reported that in

Casino Land für 400 Rubel

Rossiyskaya Federatsiya ; IPA: Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major urban centers include Saint PetersburgNovosibirskYekaterinburgChelyabinskNizhny NovgorodUfa and Kazan. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern EuropeRussia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms.

It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. In it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire[20] beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Casino Land für 400 Rubel culture for the next millennium. By the 18th century, Casino Land für 400 Rubel nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empirewhich was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Just click for source on the east.

Following the Russian Click herethe Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republicsthe world's first constitutionally socialist state.

The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space.

By the end of Casino Land für 400 Rubel, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in The name Russia is derived from Rusa medieval state populated mostly by the East Slavs.

In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.

The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' peopleSwedish merchants and warriors [36] [37] who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that later became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Rutheniamostly applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is " Russians " in English [39] and rossiyane Russian: There are two Russian words which read article commonly translated into English as "Russians".

Translations into other languages often do not distinguish these Casino Land für 400 Rubel groups. Nomadic pastoralism developed in the Pontic-Caspian steppe beginning in the Chalcolithic. In classical antiquitythe Pontic Steppe was known as Scythia. Beginning in the 8th century BC, Ancient Greek traders brought their civilization to the trade emporiums in Tanais and Phanagoria. Ancient Greek explorers, most notably Pytheaseven went as far as modern day Kaliningradon the Baltic Sea.

Romans settled on the western part of the Caspian Seawhere their empire stretched towards the east. Between the 3rd and 6th centuries AD, the Bosporan Kingdoma Hellenistic polity which succeeded the Greek colonies, [42] was also overwhelmed by nomadic invasions led by warlike tribes, such as the Huns and Eurasian Avars. The ancestors of modern Russians are the Casino Land für 400 Rubel tribeswhose original home is thought by some scholars to have been the wooded areas of the Pinsk Marshes.

From the 7th century onwards, the East Slavs constituted the bulk of the population in Western Russia [46] and Casino Land für 400 Rubel the native Finno-Ugric peoplesincluding the Meryathe Muromiansand the Meshchera. The establishment of the first East Slavic states in the spielen Online-Spielautomaten für Geld im Palace Casino century coincided with the arrival of Varangiansthe traders, warriors and Casino Land für 400 Rubel from the Baltic Sea region.

Primarily they were Vikings of Scandinavian origin, Casino Land für 400 Rubel ventured along the waterways click the following article from the eastern Baltic to the Black and Caspian Seas. In his successor Oleg ventured south and conquered Kiev[48] which had been previously paying tribute to the Khazarsfounding Kievan Casino Land für 400 Rubel. Oleg, Rurik's son Igor and Igor's son Casino Land für 400 Rubel subsequently subdued all local East Slavic tribes to Kievan rule, destroyed the Khazar khaganate and launched several military expeditions to Byzantium and Persia.

In the 10th to 11th centuries Kievan Rus' became one of the largest and most prosperous states in Europe. In the 11th and Casino Land für 400 Rubel centuries, constant incursions by nomadic Turkic tribes, such as the Kipchaks and the Pechenegscaused a massive click to see more of Slavic populations to the safer, heavily forested regions of the north, particularly to the area known as Zalesye.

The age of feudalism and decentralization was marked by constant in-fighting between members of the Rurik Dynasty that ruled Kievan Rus' collectively. Kiev's dominance waned, to the benefit of Vladimir-Suzdal in the north-east, Novgorod Republic in the north-west and Galicia-Volhynia in the south-west.

Ultimately Kievan Rus' Casino Land für 400 Rubel, with the final blow being the Mongol invasion of —40 [51] that resulted in the destruction of Kiev [52] and the death of about half the population of Rus'. Galicia-Volhynia was eventually assimilated by the Kingdom of Polandwhile the Mongol-dominated Vladimir-Suzdal and Novgorod Republic, two regions on the periphery of Kiev, established the basis for the modern Russian nation.

Led by Prince Alexander NevskyNovgorodians repelled the invading Swedes in the Battle of the Neva inas well as the Germanic crusaders in the Battle of the Ice in Casino Land für 400 Rubel, breaking their attempts to colonize the Northern Rus'. The most powerful state to eventually arise after the destruction of Kievan Rus' was the Grand Duchy of Moscow "Muscovy" in the Western chroniclesinitially a part of Vladimir-Suzdal.

While still under the domain of the Mongol - Tatars and with their connivance, Moscow began to assert its influence in the Central Rus' in the early 14th century, gradually becoming the leading force in the process of the Rus' lands' reunification and expansion of Russia.

Times remained difficult, with frequent Mongol-Tatar raids. Agriculture suffered from Casino Land für 400 Rubel beginning of the Little Ice Age. As in the rest of Europe, plague was a frequent occurrence between and Casino Land für 400 Rubel gradually absorbed the surrounding principalities, including formerly strong rivals such as Tver and Novgorod. He was also the first to take the title "Grand Duke of all the Russias". The Tsar promulgated a new code of laws Sudebnik ofestablished the first Russian feudal representative body Zemsky Sobor and introduced local self-management into the rural regions.

During his long reign, Ivan the Terrible nearly doubled the already large Russian territory by annexing the three Tatar khanates parts of the disintegrated Golden Horde: Thus, by the end of the 16th century Russia was transformed into a multiethnicmultidenominational and transcontinental state. However, the Tsardom was weakened by the long and unsuccessful Livonian War against the coalition of Poland, Lithuania, and Sweden for access to the Baltic coast and sea trade.

The slave raids of Crimeanshowever, did not cease until the late 17th century though the construction of new fortification lines across Southern Russia, such as the Great Abatis Lineconstantly narrowed the area accessible to incursions. The death of This web page sons marked the end of the ancient Rurik Dynasty inand in combination with the famine of —03 [65] led to civil Casino Land für 400 Rubel, the rule of pretenders, and foreign intervention during the Time Casino Land für 400 Rubel Troubles in the early 17th century.

Inthe Poles were forced to retreat by the Russian volunteer corps, led by two оставляю Alle Spielautomaten Alcatraz того heroes, merchant Kuzma Minin and Prince Dmitry Pozharsky. The Romanov Dynasty acceded to the throne in by the decision of Zemsky Sobor, and the country started its gradual Casino Land für 400 Rubel from the crisis.

Russia continued its territorial growth through the 17th century, which was the age of Cossacks. Cossacks were Casino Land für 400 Rubel organized into military communities, resembling pirates and pioneers of the New World. Inthe peasants of Ukraine joined the Zaporozhian Cossacks in rebellion against Poland-Lithuania during the Khmelnytsky Uprising in reaction to the social and Casino Land für 400 Rubel oppression they had been suffering under Polish rule.

Aleksey's acceptance of this offer led to another Russo-Polish War. Finally, Ukraine was split along the Dnieper Riverleaving the western part, right-bank Ukraineunder Polish rule and the eastern part Source Ukraine and Kiev under Russian rule. Later, in —71, the Don Cossacks led by Stenka Razin initiated a major uprising in the Volga Regionbut the Tsar's troops were successful in defeating the rebels.

In the east, the rapid Russian exploration and colonisation of the huge territories of Siberia was led mostly by Cossacks hunting for valuable furs and ivory. Russian explorers pushed eastward primarily along the Siberian River Routeslearn more here by the midth century there were Russian settlements in Eastern Siberia, on the Chukchi Peninsulaalong the Amur Riverand on the Pacific coast. Under Peter the GreatRussia was proclaimed an Empire in and became recognized as a world power.

Ruling from toPeter defeated Sweden in the Great Northern Warforcing it to cede West Karelia and Ingria two regions lost by Russia in the Time of Troubles[67] as well as Estland and Livlandsecuring Russia's access to the sea and sea trade. Peter the Great's reforms brought considerable Western European cultural influences to Russia. During this conflict Russia annexed East Prussia for a while and even took Berlin. She extended Russian political control Casino Land für 400 Rubel the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and incorporated most of its territories into Russia during the Partitions of Polandpushing the Russian frontier westward into Central Europe.

As a result of victories over Qajar Iran through the Russo-Persian Warsby the first half of the 19th century Russia also made significant territorial gains in Transcaucasia and the North Caucasusforcing the former to irrevocably cede what is nowadays GeorgiaDagestanAzerbaijan and Armenia to Russia.

At the same time, Casino Land für 400 Rubel colonized Casino Land für 400 Rubel and even founded settlements in California, such as Fort Ross. In —, the first Russian circumnavigation was made, later followed by other notable Russian sea exploration voyages. Ina Russian expedition discovered the continent of Antarctica. In alliances with various European countries, Russia fought against Napoleon 's France.

The officers of the Napoleonic Wars brought ideas of liberalism back to Russia with them and attempted to curtail the tsar's powers during the abortive Decembrist revolt of Between andabout one million people died of Asiatic cholera.

These Great Casino Land für 400 Rubel spurred industrialization and modernized the Russian army, which had successfully liberated Bulgaria from Ottoman rule in the —78 Russo-Turkish War.

The late 19th century saw the rise of various socialist movements in Russia. The uprising was put down, but the government was forced to concede major reforms Russian Constitution ofincluding granting the freedoms of speech and assemblythe legalization of political parties, and the creation of an elected legislative body, the State Duma of the Russian Empire.

The Stolypin agrarian reform led to a massive peasant migration and settlement into Siberia. More than four million settlers arrived in that region between and However, the already-existing public distrust of the regime was deepened by the rising costs of war, high casualtiesand rumors of corruption and treason.

All this formed the climate for the Russian Revolution ofcarried out in two major acts. The monarchy was replaced by a shaky coalition of political parties that declared itself the Provisional Government.

On September 1 14, upon a decree of the Provisional Government, the Russian Republic was proclaimed. An alternative socialist establishment existed alongside, the Petrograd Sovietwielding power through the democratically elected councils of workers and peasants, called Soviets.

The Casino Land für 400 Rubel of the new authorities only aggravated the crisis in the country, instead of resolving it. Eventually, the October Revolutionled by Bolshevik leader Vladimir Leninoverthrew the Provisional Government and gave full governing power to the Soviets, leading to the creation of the world's first socialist state. Following the October Revolution, a civil war broke out between the anti-Communist White movement and the new Soviet regime with its Red Army.

The Allied powers launched an unsuccessful military intervention Casino Land für 400 Rubel support click the following article anti-Communist forces. In the meantime both the Bolsheviks and White movement carried out campaigns of deportations and executions against each other, known respectively as the Red Terror and White Terror. By the end of the civil war, Russia's economy and infrastructure were heavily damaged.

Following Lenin's death ina troika was designated to govern the Soviet Union. However, Joseph Stalinan elected General Secretary of the Communist Partymanaged to suppress all opposition groups within the party and consolidate power in his hands.

Leon Trotskythe main proponent of world revolutionwas exiled from the Soviet Union inand Stalin's idea of Socialism in One Country became the primary line. Under Stalin's leadership, the government launched a planned economyindustrialisation of the largely rural country, and collectivization of its agriculture. During this period of rapid economic and social change, millions of people were sent to penal labor camps[78] including many political convicts for their opposition to Stalin's rule; millions were deported and exiled to remote areas of the Soviet Union.

Under the doctrine of state atheism in the Soviet Union, there was a "government-sponsored program of forced conversion to atheism " conducted by Communists. As for the Russian Orthodox Church, Soviet authorities sought to control it and, in times of national crisis, to exploit it for the regime's own purposes; but their ultimate goal was to eliminate it.

During the first five years of Soviet power, the Bolsheviks executed 28 Russian Orthodox bishops and over 1, Russian Orthodox priests. Many others were imprisoned or exiled. Believers were harassed and persecuted. Most seminaries were closed, and the publication of most religious material was prohibited.

By only churches remained open out of about 54, in existence prior to World War I.

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